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Almanac

By The Associated Press

Today in History

Today is Monday, Oct. 31, the 305th day of 2016. There are 61 days left in the year. This is Halloween.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Oct. 31, 1926, magician Harry Houdini died in Detroit of peritonitis resulting from a ruptured appendix.

On this date:

In 1517, Martin Luther posted his 95 Theses on the door of the Wittenberg Palace church, marking the start of the Protestant Reformation in Germany.

In 1795, English poet John Keats was born in London.

In 1864, Nevada became the 36th state as President Abraham Lincoln signed a proclamation.

In 1941, the Navy destroyer USS Reuben James was torpedoed by a German U-boat off Iceland with the loss of some 100 lives, even though the United States had not yet entered World War II. Work was completed on the Mount Rushmore National Memorial in South Dakota, begun in 1927.

In 1956, Navy Rear Adm. George J. Dufek and six others became the first air travelers to set foot at the South Pole.

In 1961, the body of Josef Stalin was removed from Lenin’s Tomb as part of the Soviet Union’s “de-Stalinization” drive.

In 1964, Theodore C. Freeman, 34, became the first member of NASA’s astronaut corps to die when his T-38 jet crashed while approaching Ellington Air Force Base in Houston.

In 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson ordered a halt to all U.S. bombing of North Vietnam, saying he hoped for fruitful peace negotiations.

In 1984, Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated by two Sikh (seek) security guards. In 1994, a Chicago-bound American Eagle ATR-72 crashed in northern Indiana, killing all 68 people aboard.

In 1996, a Brazilian Fokker-100 jetliner crashed in Sao Paulo, killing all 96 people on board and three on the ground.

In 1999, EgyptAir Flight 990, bound from New York to Cairo, crashed off the Massachusetts coast, killing all 217 people aboard.

Thought for Today: “Moral indignation is in most cases two percent moral, forty-eight percent indignation, and fifty percent envy.” – Vittorio De Sica, Italian movie director

Almanac

By The Associated Press

Today in History

Today is Saturday, Oct. 29, the 303rd day of 2016. There are 63 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlights in History:

On Oct. 29, 1956, during the Suez Canal crisis, Israel invaded Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula. “The Huntley-Brinkley Report” premiered as NBC’s nightly television newscast.

On this date:

In 1618, Sir Walter Raleigh, the English courtier, military adventurer and poet, was executed in London for treason.

In 1787, the opera “Don Giovanni” by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart had its world premiere in Prague.

In 1891, actress, comedian and singer Fanny Brice was born in New York.

In 1901, President William McKinley’s assassin, Leon Czolgosz (CHAWL’-gahsh), was electrocuted.

In 1929, Wall Street crashed on “Black Tuesday,” heralding the start of America’s Great Depression.

In 1940, a blindfolded Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson drew the first number – 158 – from a glass bowl in America’s first peacetime military draft.

In 1964, thieves made off with the Star of India and other gems from the American Museum of Natural History in New York. (The Star and most of the other gems were recovered; three men were convicted of stealing them.)

In 1979, on the 50th anniversary of the great stock market crash, anti-nuclear protesters tried but failed to shut down the New York Stock Exchange.

Almanac

By The Associated Press

Today in History

Today is Friday, Oct. 28, the 302nd day of 2016. There are 64 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Oct. 28, 1886, the Statue of Liberty, a gift from the people of France, was dedicated in New York Harbor by President Grover Cleveland.

On this date:

In 1636, the General Court of Massachusetts passed a legislative act establishing Harvard College.

In 1776, the Battle of White Plains was fought during the Revolutionary War, resulting in a limited British victory.

In 1914, Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip, whose assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, sparked World War I, was sentenced in Sarajevo to 20 years’ imprisonment. (He died in 1918.)

In 1936, President Franklin D. Roosevelt rededicated the Statue of Liberty on its 50th anniversary.

In 1940, Italy invaded Greece during World War II.

In 1958, the Roman Catholic patriarch of Venice, Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, was elected Pope; he took the name John XXIII. The Samuel Beckett play “Krapp’s Last Tape” premiered in London.

In 1962, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev informed the United States that he had ordered the dismantling of missile bases in Cuba; in return, the U.S. secretly agreed to remove nuclear missiles from U.S. installations in Turkey.

In 1965, Pope Paul VI issued a Declaration on the Relation of the Church with Non-Christian Religions which, among other things, absolved Jews of collective guilt for the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.

In 1976, former Nixon aide John D. Ehrlichman entered a federal prison camp in Safford, Arizona, to begin serving his sentence for Watergate-related convictions (he was released in April 1978).

In 1980, President Jimmy Carter and Republican presidential nominee Ronald Reagan faced off in a nationally broadcast, 90-minute debate in Cleveland.

Almanac

By The Associated Press

Today in History

Today is Thursday, Oct. 27, the 301st day of 2016. There are 65 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Oct. 27, 1787, the first of the Federalist Papers, a series of essays calling for ratification of the United States Constitution, was published.

On this date:

In 1858, the 26th president of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt, was born in New York City.

In 1880, Theodore Roosevelt married his first wife, Alice Lee.

In 1886 (New Style date), the musical fantasy “A Night on Bald Mountain,” written by Modest Mussorgsky (MOH’-dest muh-SAWRG’-skee) and revised after his death by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, was performed in St. Petersburg, Russia.

In 1922, the first annual celebration of Navy Day took place. In 1938, Du Pont announced a name for its new synthetic yarn: “nylon.”

In 1941, the Chicago Daily Tribune dismissed the possibility of war with Japan, editorializing, “She cannot attack us. That is a military impossibility. Even our base at Hawaii is beyond the effective striking power of her fleet.”

In 1954, U.S. Air Force Col. Benjamin O. Davis Jr. was promoted to brigadier general, the first black officer to achieve that rank in the USAF. Walt Disney’s first television program, titled “Disneyland” after the yet-to-be completed theme park, premiered on ABC.

In 1962, during the Cuban Missile Crisis, a U-2 reconnaissance aircraft was shot down while flying over Cuba, killing the pilot, U.S. Air Force Maj. Rudolf Anderson Jr.

In 1978, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin (men-AH’-kem BAY’-gihn) were named winners of the Nobel Peace Prize for their progress toward achieving a Middle East accord.

In 1986, the New York Mets won the World Series, coming from behind to defeat the Boston Red Sox, 8-5, in game 7 played at Shea Stadium.

In 1995, a sniper killed one soldier and wounded 18 others at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. (Paratrooper William J. Kreutzer was convicted in the shootings, and condemned to death; the sentence was later commuted to life in prison.)

In 2004, the Boston Red Sox won their first World Series since 1918, sweeping the St. Louis Cardinals in Game 4, 3-0.

Almanac

By The Associated Press

Today in History

Today is Wednesday, Oct. 26, the 300th day of 2016. There are 66 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Oct. 26, 1861, the legendary Pony Express officially ceased operations, giving way to the transcontinental telegraph. (The last run of the Pony Express was completed the following month.)

On this date:

In 1774, the First Continental Congress adjourned in Philadelphia.

In 1825, the Erie Canal opened in upstate New York, connecting Lake Erie and the Hudson River.

In 1881, the “Gunfight at the O.K. Corral” took place in Tombstone, Arizona.

In 1921, the Chicago Theatre, billed as “the Wonder Theatre of the World,” first opened.

In 1944, the World War II Battle of Leyte Gulf ended in a major Allied victory over Japanese forces, whose naval capabilities were badly crippled.

In 1949, President Harry S. Truman signed a measure raising the minimum wage from 40 to 75 cents an hour.

In 1958, Pan American Airways flew its first Boeing 707 jetliner from New York to Paris in 8 hours and 41 minutes.

In 1965, The Beatles received MBE medals as Members of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire from Queen Elizabeth II at Buckingham Palace.

In 1972, national security adviser Henry Kissinger declared, “Peace is at hand” in Vietnam. Aviation innovator Igor Sikorsky died in Easton, Connecticut, at age 83.

In 1984, “Baby Fae,” a newborn with a severe heart defect, was given the heart of a baboon in an experimental transplant in Loma Linda, California. (Baby Fae lived 21 days with the animal heart.)

In 1994, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin of Israel and Prime Minister Abdel Salam Majali of Jordan signed a peace treaty during a ceremony at the Israeli-Jordanian border attended by President Bill Clinton.

– – –

Almanac

By The Associated Press

Today in History

Today is Tuesday, Oct. 25, the 299th day of 2016. There are 67 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Oct. 25, 1962, during a meeting of the U.N. Security Council, U.S. Ambassador Adlai E. Stevenson II demanded that Soviet Ambassador Valerian Zorin confirm or deny the existence of Soviet-built missile bases in Cuba, saying he was prepared to wait “until hell freezes over” for an answer; Stevenson then presented photographic evidence of the bases to the Council.

On this date:

In 1415, during the Hundred Years’ War, outnumbered English soldiers led by Henry V defeated French troops in the Battle of Agincourt in northern France.

In 1760, Britain’s King George III succeeded his late grandfather, George II.

In 1854, the “Charge of the Light Brigade” took place during the Crimean War as an English brigade of more than 600 men charged the Russian army, suffering heavy losses.

In 1929, former Interior Secretary Albert B. Fall was convicted in Washington, D.C. of accepting a $100,000 bribe from oil tycoon Edward L. Doheny. (Fall was sentenced to a year in prison and fined $100,000; he ended up serving nine months.)

In 1939, the play “The Time of Your Life,” by William Saroyan, opened in New York.

In 1944, New York socialite and amateur soprano Florence Foster Jenkins, 76, performed a recital to a capacity crowd at Carnegie Hall. (The next day, a scathing review by Earl Wilson in the New York Post remarked, “She can sing anything but notes.”)

In 1945, Taiwan became independent of Japanese colonial rule.

In 1954, a meeting of President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s Cabinet was carried live on radio and television; to date, it’s the only presidential Cabinet meeting to be broadcast.

In 1971, the U.N. General Assembly voted to admit mainland China and expel Taiwan.

In 1983, a U.S.-led force invaded Grenada at the order of President Ronald Reagan, who said the action was needed to protect U.S. citizens there.

In 1986, in Game 6 of the World Series, the New York Mets rallied for three runs with two outs in the 10th inning, defeating the Boston Red Sox 6-5 and forcing a seventh game; the tie-breaking run scored on Boston first baseman Bill Buckner’s error on Mookie Wilson’s slow grounder. (The Mets went on to win the Series.)

Almanac

By The Associated Press

Today in History

Today is Monday, Oct. 24, the 298th day of 2016. There are 68 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Oct. 24, 1962, a naval quarantine of Cuba ordered by President John F. Kennedy went into effect during the missile crisis.

On this date:

In 1537, Jane Seymour, the third wife of England’s King Henry VIII, died 12 days after giving birth to Prince Edward, later King Edward VI.

In 1648, the Peace of Westphalia (west-FAY’-lee-uh) ended the Thirty Years War and effectively destroyed the Holy Roman Empire.

In 1861, the first transcontinental telegraph message was sent by Chief Justice Stephen J. Field of California from San Francisco to President Abraham Lincoln in Washington, D.C., over a line built by the Western Union Telegraph Co.

In 1936, the short story “The Devil and Daniel Webster” by Stephen Vincent Benet was published in The Saturday Evening Post.

In 1939, DuPont began publicly selling its nylon stockings in Wilmington, Delaware. Benny Goodman and His Orchestra recorded their signature theme, “Let’s Dance,” for Columbia Records in New York.

In 1945, the United Nations officially came into existence as its charter took effect.

In 1952, Republican presidential candidate Dwight D. Eisenhower declared in Detroit, “I shall go to Korea” as he promised to end the conflict. (He made the visit over a month later.)

In 1972, Hall of Famer Jackie Robinson, who’d broken Major League Baseball’s color barrier in 1947, died in Stamford, Connecticut, at age 53. In 1980, the merchant freighter SS Poet departed Philadelphia, bound for Port Said (sah-EED’), Egypt, with a crew of 34 and a cargo of grain; it disappeared en route and has not been heard from since.

In 1991, “Star Trek” creator Gene Roddenberry died in Santa Monica, California, at age 70.

In 1996, TyRon Lewis, 18, a black motorist, was shot to death by police during a traffic stop in St. Petersburg, Florida; the incident sparked rioting. (Officer James Knight, who said that Lewis had lurched his car at him several times, knocking him onto the hood, was cleared by a grand jury.)

In 2002, authorities apprehended Army veteran John Allen Muhammad and teenager Lee Boyd Malvo near Myersville, Maryland, in the Washington-area sniper attacks. (Malvo was later sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole; Muhammad was sentenced to death and executed in 2009.)

Thought for Today: “There are three things which the public will always clamor for, sooner or later: namely, Novelty, novelty, novelty.” – Thomas Hood, British poet

Almanac

By The Associated Press

Today in History

Today is Saturday, Oct. 22, the 296th day of 2016. There are 70 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Oct. 22, 1926, Ernest Hemingway’s first novel, “The Sun Also Rises,” was published by Scribner’s of New York.

On this date:

In 1746, Princeton University was first chartered as the College of New Jersey.

In 1797, French balloonist Andre-Jacques Garnerin (gahr-nayr-AN’) made the first parachute descent, landing safely from a height of about 3,000 feet over Paris.

In 1836, Sam Houston was inaugurated as the first constitutionally elected president of the Republic of Texas.

In 1928, Republican presidential nominee Herbert Hoover spoke of the “American system of rugged individualism” in a speech at New York’s Madison Square Garden.

In 1934, bank robber Charles “Pretty Boy” Floyd was shot to death by federal agents and local police at a farm near East Liverpool, Ohio.

In 1953, the Franco-Lao Treaty of Amity and Association effectively made Laos an independent member of the French Union.

In 1962, in a nationally broadcast address, President John F. Kennedy revealed the presence of Soviet-built missile bases under construction in Cuba and announced a quarantine of all offensive military equipment being shipped to the Communist island nation.

In 1979, the U.S. government allowed the deposed Shah of Iran to travel to New York for medical treatment – a decision that precipitated the Iran hostage crisis. French conductor and music teacher Nadia Boulanger died in Paris.

In 1981, the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization was decertified by the federal government for its strike the previous August.

In 1986, President Ronald Reagan signed into law sweeping tax-overhaul legislation. Jane Dornacker, 39, a traffic reporter for New York radio station WNBC-AM, was killed when the helicopter she was riding in plunged into the Hudson River during a live report (pilot William Pate was badly injured, but survived).

In 1991, the European Community and the European Free Trade Association concluded a landmark accord to create a free trade zone of 19 nations by 1993. In 2014, a gunman shot and killed a soldier standing guard at a war memorial in Ottawa, then stormed the Canadian Parliament before he was shot and killed by the usually ceremonial sergeant-at-arms.

Ten years ago: Senior U.S. diplomat Alberto Fernandez apologized for saying in an al-Jazeera TV interview that U.S. policy in Iraq had displayed “arrogance” and “stupidity.” The Detroit Tigers beat the St. Louis Cardinals 3-1 to tie up the World Series 1-1. Actor Arthur Hill died in Los Angeles at age 84.

Thought for Today: “Life is easier to take than you’d think; all that is necessary is to accept the impossible, do without the indispensable and bear the intolerable.” – Kathleen Norris, American author (1880-1960).

Almanac

By The Associated Press

Today in History

Today is Friday, Oct. 21, the 295th day of 2016. There are 71 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Oct. 21, 1966, 144 people, 116 of them children, were killed when a coal waste landslide engulfed a school and some 20 houses in Aberfan, Wales.

On this date:

In 1797, the U.S. Navy frigate Constitution, also known as “Old Ironsides,” was christened in Boston’s harbor.

In 1805, a British fleet commanded by Adm. Horatio Nelson defeated a French-Spanish fleet in the Battle of Trafalgar; Nelson, however, was killed.

In 1892, schoolchildren across the U.S. observed Columbus Day (according to the Gregorian date) by reciting, for the first time, the original version of “The Pledge of Allegiance,” written by Francis Bellamy for The Youth’s Companion.

In 1917, members of the 1st Division of the U.S. Army training in Luneville (luhn-nay-VEEL’), France, became the first Americans to see action on the front lines of World War I.

In 1941, superheroine Wonder Woman made her debut in All-Star Comics issue No. 8, published by All-American Comics, Inc. of New York.

In 1944, during World War II, U.S. troops captured the German city of Aachen (AH’-kuhn).

In 1959, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, opened to the public in New York.

In 1960, Democrat John F. Kennedy and Republican Richard M. Nixon clashed in their fourth and final presidential debate in New York.

In 1971, President Richard Nixon nominated Lewis F. Powell and William H. Rehnquist to the U.S. Supreme Court. (Both nominees were confirmed.) In 1985, former San Francisco Supervisor Dan White – who’d served five years in prison for killing Mayor George Moscone (mah-SKOH’-nee) and Supervisor Harvey Milk, a gay-rights advocate – was found dead in a garage, a suicide.

In 1986, pro-Iranian kidnappers in Lebanon abducted American Edward Tracy (he was released in Aug. 1991).

In 1991, American hostage Jesse Turner was freed by his kidnappers in Lebanon after nearly five years in captivity.

Ten years ago: Al-Jazeera television aired an interview with State Department official Alberto Fernandez, who offered a striking assessment of the Iraq war, saying in Arabic that the United States had shown “arrogance” and “stupidity” in Iraq. (Fernandez issued an apology the next day.) Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, visiting Moscow, delivered a symbolic rebuke to Russia over shrinking press freedoms, even as she courted President Vladimir Putin for help punishing Iran over its nuclear program. The St. Louis Cardinals cruised past the Detroit Tigers 7-2 win in Game 1 of the World Series.

Five years ago: President Barack Obama declared that America’s long and deeply unpopular war in Iraq would be over by the end of 2011 and that all U.S. troops “will definitely be home for the holidays.”

Thought for Today: “Happiness is not a horse; you cannot harness it.” – Russian proverb.

Almanac

By The Associated Press

Today in History

Today is Wednesday, Oct. 19, the 293rd day of 2016. There are 73 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Oct. 19, 1216, John, King of England, died, more than a year after affixing his royal seal to Magna Carta (“The Great Charter”).

On this date:

In 1765, the Stamp Act Congress, meeting in New York, adopted a declaration of rights and liberties which the British Parliament ignored.

In 1781, British troops under Gen. Lord Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown, Virginia, as the American Revolution neared its end.

In 1789, John Jay was sworn in as the first Chief Justice of the United States.

In 1864, Confederate Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early’s soldiers attacked Union forces at Cedar Creek, Virginia; the Union troops were able to rally and defeat the Confederates.

In 1914, the U.S. Post Office began delivering mail with government-owned cars, as opposed to using contracted vehicles. The First Battle of Ypres (EE’-pruh) began during World War I.

In 1936, H.R. Ekins of the New York World-Telegram beat out Dorothy Kilgallen of the New York Journal and Leo Kieran of The New York Times in a round-the-world race on commercial flights that lasted 18 1/2 days.

In 1944, the U.S. Navy began accepting black women into WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service). The play “I Remember Mama” by John Van Druten opened at the Music Box Theater on Broadway.

In 1951, President Harry S. Truman signed an act formally ending the state of war with Germany.

In 1960, the United States began a limited embargo against Cuba covering all commodities except medical supplies and certain food products.

In 1977, the supersonic Concorde made its first landing in New York City.

In 1987, the stock market crashed as the Dow Jones Industrial Average plunged 508 points, or 22.6 percent in value, to close at 1,738.74.

In 1994, 22 people were killed as a terrorist bomb shattered a bus in the heart of Tel Aviv’s shopping district. Entertainer Martha Raye died in Los Angeles at age 78.

Ten years ago: Gunmen ambushed a car carrying Afghan civilians working for a U.S. military base in Afghanistan, killing eight of them execution-style. The Dow Jones industrial average closed above 12,000 for the first time, ending at 12,011.73. The St. Louis Cardinals won the NL pennant, beating the New York Mets 3-1 in Game 7 of their championship series. Actress Phyllis Kirk died in Los Angeles at age 79.

Five years ago: Authorities in the Zanesville, Ohio, area started wrapping up their hunt for wild animals unleashed by a private farm owner who’d taken his own life; sheriff’s deputies shot and killed a total of 48 animals. In Greece, hundreds of youths smashed and looted stores in central Athens and clashed with riot police during a massive anti-government rally against painful new austerity measures. The St. Louis Cardinals won Game 1 of the World Series, defeating the Texas Rangers 3-2.

One year ago: Canadians voted for a sharp change in their government as the Liberals led by Justin Trudeau, the son of a former prime minister, won a landslide victory to end Conservative Stephen Harper’s near decade in office. Ahmed Mohamed, the Texas teenager arrested after a homemade clock he’d brought to school was mistaken for a bomb, capped a whirlwind month with a visit to the White House, where he met with President Barack Obama for “Astronomy Night.” The Toronto Blue Jays roughed up Johnny Cueto for an 11-8 victory over the Royals that cut Kansas City’s AL Championship series lead to 2-1.

Thought for Today: “To become aware of the possibility of the search is to be onto something.” – Walker Percy, American author

Almanac

By The Associated Press

Today in History

Today is Monday, Oct. 17, the 291st day of 2016. There are 75 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Oct. 17, 1777, British forces under Gen. John Burgoyne surrendered to American troops in Saratoga, New York, in a turning point of the Revolutionary War.

On this date:

In 1610, French King Louis XIII, age nine, was crowned at Reims, five months after the assassination of his father, Henry IV.

In 1807, Britain declared it would continue to reclaim British-born sailors from American ships and ports regardless of whether they held U.S. citizenship.

In 1919, Radio Corp. of America was chartered.

In 1931, mobster Al Capone was convicted of income tax evasion. (Sentenced to 11 years in prison, Capone was released in 1939.)

In 1933, Albert Einstein arrived in the United States as a refugee from Nazi Germany.

In 1941, the U.S. destroyer Kearny was damaged by a German torpedo off the coast of Iceland; 11 people died.

In 1945, Col. Juan Peron, the future president of Argentina, was released from prison after protests by trade unionists.

In 1956, the all-star movie “Around the World in 80 Days,” produced by Michael Todd, had its world premiere in New York.

In 1966, 12 New York City firefighters were killed while battling a blaze in lower Manhattan. The TV game show “The Hollywood Squares” premiered on NBC. In 1979, Mother Teresa of India was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. In 1989, an earthquake measuring a surface-wave magnitude of 7.1 struck northern California, killing 63 people and causing $6 billion worth of damage. In 1991, entertainer Tennessee Ernie Ford died in Reston, Virginia, at age 72.

Ten years ago: President George W. Bush signed legislation authorizing tough interrogation of terror suspects and smoothing the way for trials before military commissions. America’s official population passed the 300 million mark, fueled by a growing number of immigrants and their children. Megan Meier, the 13-year-old victim of a cyberbullying hoax, died a day after hanging herself at home in Dardenne Prairie, Missouri. CBS News correspondent Christopher Glenn died in Norwalk, Connecticut, at age 68.

Thought for Today: “The thinking of a genius does not proceed logically. It leaps with great ellipses. It pulls knowledge from God knows where.” – Dorothy Thompson, American journalist (1894-1961).

Almanac

By The Associated Press

Today in History

Today is Saturday, Oct. 15, the 289th day of 2016. There are 77 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlights in History:

On Oct. 15, 1966, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed a bill creating the U.S. Department of Transportation. The revolutionary Black Panther Party was founded by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, California.

On this date:

In 1783, the first manned balloon flight took place in Paris as Jean-Francois Pilatre de Rozier ascended in a basket attached to a tethered Montgolfier hot-air balloon, rising to about 75 feet.

In 1815, Napoleon Bonaparte, the deposed Emperor of the French, arrived on the British-ruled South Atlantic island of St. Helena, where he spent the last 5 1/2 years of his life in exile.

In 1905, Claude Debussy’s “La Mer” (The Sea), a trio of symphonic sketches, premiered in Paris.

In 1914, the Clayton Antitrust Act, which expanded on the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson.

In 1917, Dutch dancer Mata Hari, convicted of spying for the Germans, was executed by a French firing squad outside Paris.

In 1940, Charles Chaplin’s first all-talking comedy, “The Great Dictator,” a lampoon of Adolf Hitler, opened in New York.

In 1945, the former premier of Vichy France, Pierre Laval, was executed for treason.

In 1946, Nazi war criminal Hermann Goering (GEH’-reeng) fatally poisoned himself hours before he was to have been executed.

In 1969, peace demonstrators staged activities across the country as part of a “moratorium” against the Vietnam War.

In 1976, in the first debate of its kind between vice-presidential nominees, Democrat Walter F. Mondale and Republican Bob Dole faced off in Houston.

Almanac

By The Associated Press

Today in History

Today is Friday, Oct. 14, the 288th day of 2016. There are 78 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Oct. 14, 1066, Normans under William the Conqueror defeated the English at the Battle of Hastings.

On this date:

In 1890, Dwight D. Eisenhower, 34th president of the United States, was born in Denison, Texas.

In 1912, former President Theodore Roosevelt, campaigning for the White House as the Progressive (“Bull Moose”) candidate, went ahead with a speech in Milwaukee after being shot in the chest by New York saloonkeeper John Schrank, declaring, “It takes more than one bullet to kill a bull moose.”

In 1926, “Winnie-the-Pooh” by A.A. Milne was first published by Methuen & Co. of London.

In 1939, a German U-boat torpedoed and sank the HMS Royal Oak, a British battleship anchored at Scapa Flow in Scotland’s Orkney Islands; 833 of the more than 1,200 men aboard were killed.

In 1944, German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel committed suicide rather than face trial and certain execution for allegedly conspiring against Adolf Hitler.

In 1947, Air Force test pilot Charles E. (“Chuck”) Yeager (YAY’-gur) broke the sound barrier as he flew the experimental Bell XS-1 (later X-1) rocket plane over Muroc Dry Lake in California.

In 1960, Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedy suggested the idea of a Peace Corps while addressing an audience of students at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.

In 1964, civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. was named winner of the Nobel Peace Prize. Soviet leader Nikita S. Khrushchev was toppled from power; he was succeeded by Leonid Brezhnev as First Secretary and by Alexei Kosygin as Premier.

In 1977, singer Bing Crosby died outside Madrid, Spain, at age 74.

In 1986, Holocaust survivor and human rights advocate Elie Wiesel (EL’-ee vee-ZEHL’) was named winner of the Nobel Peace Prize. The International Olympic Committee decided to separate the years of the Summer and Winter Olympic Games beginning in 1994.

In 1987, a 58-hour drama began in Midland, Texas, as 18-month-old Jessica McClure slid 22 feet down an abandoned well at a private day care center; she was rescued on Oct. 16.

In 1996, Madonna and her boyfriend, Carlos Leon, became parents as the pop star gave birth to a girl, Lourdes Maria Ciccone Leon. The Dow Jones industrial average closed above 6,000 for the first time, ending the day at 6,010.00.

Ten years ago: The U.N. Security Council voted unanimously to impose punishing sanctions on North Korea for carrying out a nuclear test. The Detroit Tigers swept the American League championship with a 6-3 victory over the Oakland Athletics. A sideline-clearing brawl interrupted the third quarter of Miami’s 35-0 victory over Florida International. Gerry (GEH’-ree) Studds, the first openly gay member of Congress, died in Boston at age 69; singer Freddy Fender died in Corpus Christi, Texas, at age 69.

Five years ago: President Barack Obama cast himself as a savior of the U.S. auto industry as he stood in a once-shuttered Michigan assembly plant with South Korean President Lee Myung-bak to boast of a new trade deal and the auto bailout he’d pushed through Congress. The St. Louis Cardinals beat the Milwaukee Brewers 7-1 to take a 3-2 lead in the NL championship series. In Tokyo, Japan’s Kohei Uchimura (koo-hay oo-chee-mur-uh) gave the home fans what they wanted, becoming the first man to win three titles at the world gymnastics championships.

One year ago: Hundreds of soldiers fanned out in cities across Israel and authorities erected concrete barriers outside some Arab neighborhoods of east Jerusalem in a stepped-up effort to counter a monthlong wave of Palestinian violence.

Almanac

By The Associated Press

Today in History

Today is Thursday, Oct. 13, the 287th day of 2016. There are 79 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Oct. 13, 1792, the cornerstone of the executive mansion, later known as the White House, was laid during a ceremony in the District of Columbia.

On this date:

In A.D. 54, Roman Emperor Claudius I died, poisoned apparently at the behest of his wife, Agrippina (ag-rih-PEE’-nuh).

In 1775, the United States Navy had its origins as the Continental Congress ordered the construction of a naval fleet.

In 1843, the Jewish organization B’nai B’rith (buh-NAY’ brith) was founded in New York City.

In 1932, President Herbert Hoover and Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes laid the cornerstone for the U.S. Supreme Court building in Washington. In 1944, during World War II, American troops entered Aachen, Germany.

In 1957, CBS-TV broadcast “The Edsel Show,” a one-hour live special starring Bing Crosby designed to promote the new, ill-fated Ford automobile. (It was the first special to use videotape technology to delay the broadcast to the West Coast.)

In 1962, Edward Albee’s four-character drama “Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?” opened on Broadway.

In 1966, actor-singer-dancer Clifton Webb, 76, died in Los Angeles.

In 1972, a Uruguayan chartered flight carrying 45 people crashed in the Andes; survivors resorted to feeding off the remains of some of the dead in order to stay alive until they were rescued more than two months later.

In 1981, voters in Egypt participated in a referendum to elect Vice President Hosni Mubarak (HAHS’-nee moo-BAH’-rahk) the new president, one week after the assassination of Anwar Sadat.

In 1999, the Senate rejected the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, with 48 senators voting in favor and 51 against, far short of the 67 needed for ratification. In Boulder, Colorado, the JonBenet Ramsey grand jury was dismissed after 13 months of work with prosecutors saying there wasn’t enough evidence to charge anyone in the 6-year-old beauty queen’s 1996 slaying.

In 2010, rescuers in Chile using a missile-like escape capsule pulled 33 men one by one to fresh air and freedom 69 days after they were trapped in a collapsed mine a half-mile underground.

Almanac

By The Associated Press

Today in History

Today is Wednesday, Oct. 12, the 286th day of 2016. There are 80 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Oct. 12, 1492 (according to the Old Style calendar), Christopher Columbus arrived with his expedition in the present-day Bahamas.

On this date:

In 1810, the German festival Oktoberfest was first held in Munich to celebrate the wedding of Bavarian Crown Prince Ludwig and Princess Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen.

In 1870, General Robert E. Lee died in Lexington, Virginia, at age 63.

In 1915, English nurse Edith Cavell was executed by a German firing squad for helping Allied soldiers escape from occupied Belgium during World War I. Former President Theodore Roosevelt, speaking to the Knights of Columbus in New York, criticized native-born Americans who identified themselves by dual nationalities, saying that “a hyphenated American is not an American at all.”

In 1933, bank robber John Dillinger escaped from a jail in Allen County, Ohio, with the help of his gang, who killed the sheriff, Jess Sarber.

In 1942, during World War II, American naval forces defeated the Japanese in the Battle of Cape Esperance. Attorney General Francis Biddle announced during a Columbus Day celebration at Carnegie Hall in New York that Italian nationals in the United States would no longer be considered enemy aliens.

In 1964, the Soviet Union launched a Voskhod space capsule with a three-man crew on the first mission involving more than one crew member (the flight lasted just over 24 hours).

In 1976, it was announced in China that Hua Guofeng had been named to succeed the late Mao Zedong as chairman of the Communist Party; it was also announced that Mao’s widow and three others, known as the “Gang of Four,” had been arrested.

In 1984, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher escaped an attempt on her life when an Irish Republican Army bomb exploded at a hotel in Brighton, England, killing five people.

In 1986, the superpower meeting in Reykjavik, Iceland, ended in stalemate, with President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev unable to agree on arms control or a date for a full-fledged summit in the United States.

In 1997, singer John Denver was killed in the crash of his privately built aircraft in Monterey Bay, California; he was 53.

In 2000, 17 sailors were killed in a suicide bomb attack on the destroyer USS Cole in Yemen.

Almanac

By The Associated Press

Today in History

Today is Tuesday, Oct. 11, the 285th day of 2016. There are 81 days left in the year. The Jewish Day of Atonement, Yom Kippur, begins at sunset.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Oct. 11, 1986, President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev opened two days of talks concerning arms control and human rights in Reykjavik, Iceland.

On this date:

In 1779, Polish nobleman Casimir Pulaski, fighting for American independence, died two days after being wounded during the Revolutionary War Battle of Savannah, Georgia.

In 1890, the Daughters of the American Revolution was founded in Washington, D.C.

In 1905, the Juilliard School was founded as the Institute of Musical Art in New York.

In 1910, Theodore Roosevelt became the first former U.S. president to fly in an airplane during a visit to St. Louis.

In 1932, the first American political telecast took place as the Democratic National Committee sponsored a program from a CBS television studio in New York.

In 1944, the classic films “To Have and Have Not,” starring Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall, and “Laura,” starring Gene Tierney and Dana Andrews, opened in New York.

In 1958, the lunar probe Pioneer 1 was launched; it failed to go as far out as planned, fell back to Earth, and burned up in the atmosphere.

In 1968, Apollo 7, the first manned Apollo mission, was launched with astronauts Wally Schirra, Donn Fulton Eisele and R. Walter Cunningham aboard. The government of Panama was overthrown in a military coup.

In 1975, Bill Clinton and Hillary Diane Rodham were married in Fayetteville, Arkansas. “NBC Saturday Night” (later “Saturday Night Live”) made its debut with guest host George Carlin.

In 1984, Challenger astronaut Kathryn D. Sullivan became the first American woman to walk in space as she and fellow Mission Specialist David C. Leestma spent 3 1/2 hours outside the shuttle.

In 1985, Arab-American activist Alex Odeh was killed by a bomb blast in Santa Ana, California. (The case remains unsolved.)

In 1991, testifying before the Senate Judiciary Committee, Anita Hill accused Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas of sexually harassing her; Thomas re-appeared before the panel to denounce the proceedings as a “high-tech lynching.”

In 2002, former President Jimmy Carter was named the recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize.

Ten years ago: A single-engine plane carrying New York Yankees pitcher Cory Lidle (LY’-dul) and flight instructor Tyler Stanger crashed into a high-rise apartment building in New York City, killing both men. The charge of treason was used for the first time in the U.S. war on terrorism, filed against Adam Yehiye Gadahn (ah-DAHM’ YEH’-heh-yuh guh-DAHN’), also known as “Azzam the American,” who’d appeared in propaganda videos for al-Qaida. (Gadahn was killed by a U.S. drone strike in Pakistan in Jan. 2015.)

Five years ago: Presidential challenger Mitt Romney accused President Barack Obama of failing to lead in a time of economic peril but sounded less conservative than his Republican rivals in their debate in Hanover, New Hampshire, defending the 2008-2009 Wall Street bailout and declaring he could work with “good” Democrats. U.S. officials accused agents of the Iranian government of plotting to assassinate the Saudi ambassador to the U.S., Adel al-Jubeir (AD’-duhl ahl-joo-BEHR’). The U.S. women rolled to their third title at the world gymnastics championships held in Tokyo. The Detroit Tigers won their first game of the 2011 AL championship series, sweeping past the Texas Rangers 5-2 in Game 3.

One year ago: In an interview that aired on CBS’ “60 Minutes,” President Barack Obama said that Hillary Clinton’s use of a private email server to conduct government business when she served as secretary of state was a mistake but didn’t endanger national security. A spokesman for Iran’s judiciary said that Washington Post reporter Jason Rezaian (reh-ZY’-ahn), detained for more than a year on charges including espionage, had been convicted. (Rezaian was released in Jan. 2016.) In Incheon, South Korea, the United States rallied to win the Presidents Cup for the sixth straight time, 15 1/2-14 1/2.

Today’s Birthdays: Actor Earle Hyman is 90. Former U.S. Defense Secretary William Perry is 89. Actor Ron Leibman is 79. Actor Amitabh Bachchan is 74. Country singer Gene Watson is 73. Singer Daryl Hall (Hall and Oates) is 70. Sen. Patty Murray, D-Wash., is 66. Rhythm-and-blues musician Andrew Woolfolk is 66. Actress-director Catlin Adams is 66. Country singer Paulette Carlson is 65. Actor David Morse is 63. Actor Stephen Spinella is 60. Actress-writer-comedian Dawn French is 59. Pro and College Football Hall of Famer Steve Young is 55. Actress Joan Cusack is 54. Rock musician Scott Johnson (Gin Blossoms) is 54. Comedy writer and TV host Michael J. Nelson is 52. Actor Sean Patrick Flanery is 51. Actor Lennie James is 51. College Football Hall of Famer and former NFL player Chris Spielman is 51. Actor Luke Perry is 50. Country singer-songwriter Todd Snider is 50. Actor-comedian Artie Lange is 49. Actress Jane Krakowski is 48. Rapper U-God (Wu-Tang Clan) is 46. Actress Constance Zimmer is 46. Bluegrass musician Leigh Gibson (The Gibson Brothers) is 45. Rapper MC Lyte is 45. Figure skater Kyoko Ina is 44. Actor/writer Nat Faxon is 41. Singer NeeNa Lee is 41. Actress Emily Deschanel is 40. Actor Matt Bomer is 39. Actor Trevor Donovan is 38. Actress Michelle Trachtenberg is 31. Actress Lucy Griffiths is 30. Golfer Michelle Wie is 27.

Thought for Today: “When a friend speaks to me, whatever he says is interesting.” – Jean Renoir, French movie director (1894-1979).

Copyright 2016 The Associated Press.

Almanac

By The Associated Press

Today in History

Today is Monday, Oct. 10, the 284th day of 2016. There are 82 days left in the year. This is Columbus Day in the United States, as well as Thanksgiving Day in Canada.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Oct. 10, 1966, the Beach Boys’ single “Good Vibrations” by Brian Wilson and Mike Love was released by Capitol Records.

On this date:

In A.D. 19, Roman general Germanicus Julius Caesar, 33, died in Antioch under mysterious circumstances, possibly from poisoning.

In 1845, the U.S. Naval Academy was established in Annapolis, Maryland.

In 1913, the Panama Canal was effectively completed as President Woodrow Wilson sent a signal from the White House by telegraph, setting off explosives that destroyed a section of the Gamboa dike.

In 1935, the George Gershwin opera “Porgy and Bess,” featuring an all-black cast, opened on Broadway, where it ran for 124 performances.

In 1938, Nazi Germany completed its annexation of Czechoslovakia’s Sudetenland (soo-DAYT’-uhn-land).

In 1943, Chiang Kai-shek took the oath of office as president of China.

In 1956, the New York Yankees won the World Series, defeating the Brooklyn Dodgers, 9-0, in Game 7 at Ebbets Field.

In 1967, the Outer Space Treaty, prohibiting the placing of weapons of mass destruction on the moon or elsewhere in space, entered into force.

In 1973, Vice President Spiro T. Agnew, accused of accepting bribes, pleaded no contest to one count of federal income tax evasion, and resigned his office.

In 1985, U.S. fighter jets forced an Egyptian plane carrying the hijackers of the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro (ah-KEE’-leh LOW’-roh) to land in Italy, where the gunmen were taken into custody. Actor-director Orson Welles died in Los Angeles at age 70; actor Yul Brynner died in New York at age 65.

In 1997, the International Campaign to Ban Landmines and its coordinator, Jody Williams, were named winners of the Nobel Peace Prize.

In 2005, Angela Merkel struck a power-sharing deal that made her the first woman and politician from the ex-communist east to serve as Germany’s chancellor.

Ten years ago: The Bush administration rejected anew direct talks with North Korea in the wake of the communist country’s nuclear test, and suggested it was possible the test was something less than it appeared.

Five years ago: Christopher Sims and Thomas Sargent of the United States won the Nobel Prize in economics. NBA Commissioner David Stern canceled the first two weeks of the season after owners and players were unable to reach a new labor deal and end a lockout. Albert Pujols had one of the biggest postseason nights of his career in Game 2 of the NL championship series, going 4 for 5 with a home run, three doubles and five RBIs as the St. Louis Cardinals beat the Milwaukee Brewers 12-3 to even the series at 1-1. Nelson Cruz hit the first game-ending grand slam in postseason history, lifting the Texas Rangers over the Detroit Tigers 7-3 in 11 innings for a 2-0 lead in the AL championship series.

One year ago: Twin bombings in Ankara killed 103 people at a peace rally in the worst terror attack in Turkey’s modern history.

Almanac

By The Associated Press

Today in History

Today is Friday, Oct. 7, the 281st day of 2016. There are 85 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Oct. 7, 1916, in the most lopsided victory in college football history, Georgia Tech defeated Cumberland University 222-0 in Atlanta.

On this date:

In 1765, the Stamp Act Congress convened in New York to draw up colonial grievances against England. In 1849, author Edgar Allan Poe died in Baltimore at age 40.

In 1858, the fifth debate between Illinois senatorial candidates Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas took place in Galesburg.

In 1929, former Interior Secretary Albert B. Fall, one of the main figures of the Teapot Dome scandal, went on trial, charged with accepting a bribe from oil tycoon Edward L. Doheny. (Fall was found guilty and sentenced to a year in prison; he served nine months. Doheny was acquitted at his own trial of offering the bribe Fall was convicted of taking.)

In 1949, the Republic of East Germany was formed.

In 1954, Marian Anderson became the first black singer hired by the Metropolitan Opera Company in New York.

In 1960, Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedy and Republican opponent Richard Nixon held their second televised debate, this one in Washington D.C.

In 1979, Pope John Paul II concluded his week-long tour of the United States with a Mass on the Washington Mall.

In 1982, the Andrew Lloyd Webber-Tim Rice musical “Cats” opened on Broadway.

In 1985, Palestinian gunmen hijacked the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro (ah-KEE’-leh LOW’-roh) in the Mediterranean. (The hijackers killed Leon Klinghoffer, a Jewish-American tourist, before surrendering on Oct. 9.)

In 1991, University of Oklahoma law professor Anita Hill publicly accused Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas of making sexually inappropriate comments when she worked for him; Thomas denied Hill’s allegations.

In 1996, Fox News Channel made its debut.

Ten years ago: Anna Politkovskaya, a journalist who’d chronicled Russian military abuses against civilians in Chechnya, was found shot to death in Moscow. (In 2014, a Russian court sentenced two men to life in prison and three others to terms ranging from 12 to 20 years for murdering Politkovskaya, but it remains unclear who ordered the killing.) The Bush family christened the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier USS George H.W. Bush, named after the 41st president, in Newport News, Virginia.

Five years ago: The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to three women: President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf of Liberia, Liberian activist Leymah Gbowee, and Tawakkul Karman, who began pushing for change in Yemen long before the Arab Spring. The Minnesota Lynx completed a near-perfect postseason by beating the Atlanta Dream 73-67 to complete a three-game sweep of the WNBA championship series.

One year ago: President Barack Obama apologized to Doctors Without Borders for the American air attack that killed 42 people at its hospital in Afghanistan, and said the U.S. would examine military procedures to look for better ways to prevent such incidents. The Congressional Budget Office estimated that the federal government ran a budget deficit of $435 billion in the just-completed budget year, the smallest shortfall since 2007.

Almanac

By The Associated Press

Today in History

Today is Thursday, Oct. 6, the 280th day of 2016. There are 86 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Oct. 6, 1976, President Gerald R. Ford, in his second presidential debate with Democrat Jimmy Carter, asserted that there was “no Soviet domination of eastern Europe.” (Ford later conceded such was not the case.)

On this date:

In 1683, thirteen families from Krefeld, Germany, arrived in Philadelphia to begin Germantown, one of America’s oldest settlements.

In 1884, the Naval War College was established in Newport, Rhode Island.

In 1891, Charles Stewart Parnell, the “Uncrowned King of Ireland,” died in Brighton, Sussex, England.

In 1927, the era of talking pictures arrived with the opening of “The Jazz Singer” starring Al Jolson, a movie featuring both silent and sound-synchronized sequences.

In 1939, in a speech to the Reichstag, German Chancellor Adolf Hitler spoke of his plans to reorder the ethnic layout of Europe – a plan which would entail settling the “Jewish problem.”

In 1949, U.S.-born Iva Toguri D’Aquino, convicted of treason for being Japanese wartime broadcaster “Tokyo Rose,” was sentenced in San Francisco to 10 years in prison (she ended up serving more than six).

In 1958, the nuclear submarine USS Seawolf surfaced after spending 60 days submerged.

In 1960, the historical drama “Spartacus,” starring Kirk Douglas and directed by Stanley Kubrick, had its world premiere in New York.

In 1973, war erupted in the Middle East as Egypt and Syria launched a surprise attack on Israel during the Yom Kippur holiday. (Israel, initially caught off-guard, suffered heavy losses before rebounding and pushing back the Arab forces before a cease-fire finally took hold in the nearly three-week conflict.)

In 1979, Pope John Paul II, on a week-long U.S. tour, became the first pontiff to visit the White House, where he was received by President Jimmy Carter. In 1981, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat was shot to death by extremists while reviewing a military parade.

In 1989, actress Bette Davis died in Neuilly-sur-Seine (nu-yee-sur-sehn), France, at age 81.

Ten years ago: The U.N. Security Council adopted a statement warning North Korea of unspecified consequences if it carried out a nuclear test.

Thought for Today: “Talking comes by nature, silence by wisdom.” – Author unknown.

Almanac

By The Associated Press

Today in History

Today is Tuesday, Oct. 4, the 278th day of 2016. There are 88 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Oct. 4, 1976, Secretary of Agriculture Earl Butz resigned in the wake of a controversy over an obscene joke he’d made that was derogatory to blacks.

On this date:

In 1777, Gen. George Washington’s troops launched an assault on the British at Germantown, Pennsylvania, resulting in heavy American casualties.

In 1822, the 19th president of the United States, Rutherford B. Hayes, was born in Delaware, Ohio.

In 1931, the comic strip “Dick Tracy,” created by Chester Gould, made its debut.

In 1940, Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini conferred at Brenner Pass in the Alps.

In 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite, into orbit. The television series “Leave It to Beaver” premiered on CBS.

In 1959, the Soviet Union launched Luna 3, a space probe which transmitted images of the far side of the moon.

In 1960, an Eastern Air Lines Lockheed L-188A Electra crashed on takeoff from Boston’s Logan International Airport, killing all but 10 of the 72 people on board.

In 1966, the African kingdom of Lesotho (leh-SOO’-too) gained its independence from Britain.

In 1970, rock singer Janis Joplin, 27, was found dead in her Hollywood hotel room.

In 1985, Islamic Jihad issued a statement saying it had killed American hostage William Buckley. (Fellow hostage David Jacobsen later said he believed Buckley had died of torture injuries four months earlier.)

In 1990, for the first time in nearly six decades, German lawmakers met in the Reichstag for the first meeting of reunified Germany’s parliament.

In 1991, 26 nations, including the United States, signed the Madrid Protocol, which imposed a 50-year ban on oil exploration and mining in Antarctica.

Ten years ago: The domain name wikileaks.org was registered (the website began publishing leaked classified information in Dec. 2006). Ousted Hewlett-Packard Chairwoman Patricia Dunn, a company officer and three investigators were charged with violating California privacy laws in a corporate spying scandal. (The charges were later dropped, with a judge calling their conduct a “betrayal of trust and honor” that nonetheless did not rise to the level of criminal activity.) American Roger D. Kornberg won the Nobel Prize in chemistry. New York Times correspondent R.W. Apple Jr. died in Washington at age 71.

Five years ago: Three U.S.-born scientists, Saul Perlmutter, Brian Schmidt and Adam Riess, won the Nobel Prize in physics for discovering that the universe is expanding at an accelerating pace. The NBA canceled the entire 114-game preseason schedule because a new collective bargaining agreement had not been reached with the National Basketball Players Association.

One year ago: President Barack Obama paid tribute to firefighters who had died in the line of duty and cited the sacrifices they’d made in service to a grateful nation during an annual memorial service at the National Fire Academy in Emmitsburg, Maryland. Pope Francis opened a divisive meeting of the world’s bishops on family issues by forcefully asserting that marriage was an indissoluble bond between man and woman, but saying the church had to “seek out and care for hurting couples with the balm of acceptance and mercy.”

Today’s Birthdays: Country singer Leroy Van Dyke is 87. Actress Felicia Farr is 84. Pro and College Football Hall of Famer Sam Huff is 82. Actor Eddie Applegate is 81. Author Roy Blount Jr. is 75. Author Anne Rice is 75. Actress Lori Saunders (TV: “Petticoat Junction”) is 75. Baseball Hall of Famer Tony La Russa is 72. Actor Clifton Davis is 71. The former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Adm. Mike Mullen, is 70.

Almanac

By The Associated Press

Today in History

Today is Monday, Oct. 3, the 277th day of 2016. There are 89 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Oct. 3, 1951, the New York Giants captured the National League pennant by a score of 5-4 as Bobby Thomson hit a three-run homer off Ralph Branca of the Brooklyn Dodgers in the “shot heard ’round the world.”

On this date:

In 1789, President George Washington declared November 26, 1789, a day of Thanksgiving to express gratitude for the creation of the United States of America.

In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed the last Thursday in November Thanksgiving Day.

In 1922, Rebecca L. Felton, D-Ga., became the first woman to be appointed to the U.S. Senate (however, she served only a day).

In 1932, Iraq became independent of British administration.

In 1941, Adolf Hitler declared in a speech in Berlin that Russia had been “broken” and would “never rise again.” ”The Maltese Falcon” – the movie version starring Humphrey Bogart and directed by John Huston – opened in New York.

In 1962, astronaut Wally Schirra became the fifth American to fly in space as he blasted off from Cape Canaveral aboard the Sigma 7 on a 9-hour flight.

In 1974, Frank Robinson was named major league baseball’s first black manager as he was placed in charge of the Cleveland Indians.

In 1981, Irish nationalists at the Maze Prison near Belfast, Northern Ireland, ended seven months of hunger strikes that had claimed 10 lives.

In 1990, West Germany and East Germany ended 45 years of postwar division, declaring the creation of a reunified country.

In 1991, Arkansas Gov. Bill Clinton entered the race for the Democratic presidential nomination.

In 1995, the jury in the O.J. Simpson murder trial in Los Angeles found the former football star not guilty of the 1994 slayings of his former wife, Nicole Brown Simpson, and Ronald Goldman (however, Simpson was later found liable for damages in a civil trial).

In 2008, O.J. Simpson was found guilty of robbing two sports-memorabilia dealers at gunpoint in a Las Vegas hotel room. (Simpson was later sentenced to nine to 33 years in prison.)

Ten years ago: North Korea triggered global alarm by saying it would conduct a nuclear test, but the North also said it was committed to nuclear disarmament, suggesting a willingness to negotiate. A Turkish man hijacked a jetliner traveling from Albania to Istanbul, forcing it to land in southern Italy, where he surrendered and released all the passengers unharmed. Americans John C. Mather and George F. Smoot won the Nobel Prize in physics.

Five years ago: An Italian appeals court freed Amanda Knox of Seattle after four years in prison, tossing murder convictions against Knox and an ex-boyfriend in the stabbing of their British roommate, Meredith Kercher. Three scientists, Bruce Beutler of the U.S., Jules Hoffmann of France and Canadian-born Ralph Steinman (who had died three days earlier), won the Nobel Prize in medicine. Arthur C. Nielsen Jr., 92, who’d acquired the famous TV ratings company from his father, died in Winnetka, Illinois.

One year ago: Vice President Joe Biden, addressing the Human Rights Campaign dinner in Washington, threw his unequivocal support behind letting transgender people serve openly in the U.S. military, as the Obama administration considered whether and when to lift the longstanding ban.

Almanac

By The Associated Press

Today in History

Today is Saturday, Oct. 1, the 275th day of 2016. There are 91 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Oct. 1, 1939, Winston Churchill described Russia as “a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma” during a radio address on the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union.

On this date:

In 1891, Stanford University in California held its opening day ceremony.

In 1908, Henry Ford introduced his Model T automobile to the market.

In 1932, Babe Ruth of the New York Yankees made his supposed called shot, hitting a home run against Chicago’s Charlie Root in the fifth inning of Game 3 of the World Series, won by the New York Yankees 7-5 at Wrigley Field.

In 1936, Gen. Francisco Franco was proclaimed head of an insurgent Spanish state.

In 1940, the first section of the Pennsylvania Turnpike – described as America’s first superhighway – opened to the public, stretching 160 miles from Carlisle to Irwin.

In 1957, the motto “In God We Trust” began appearing on U.S. paper currency.

In 1961, Roger Maris of the New York Yankees hit his 61st home run during a 162-game season, compared to Babe Ruth’s 60 home runs during a 154-game season. (Tracy Stallard of the Boston Red Sox gave up the round-tripper; the Yankees won 1-0.)

In 1962, Johnny Carson debuted as host of NBC’s “Tonight Show,” beginning a nearly 30-year run.

In 1964, the Free Speech Movement began at the University of California, Berkeley. Japan’s first high-speed “bullet train,” the Tokaido Shinkansen, went into operation between Tokyo and Osaka.

In 1971, Walt Disney World opened near Orlando, Florida.

In 1994, National Hockey League team owners began a 103-day lockout of their players.

Ten years ago: The Israeli army completed its withdrawal from Lebanon, clearing the way for a U.N. peacekeeping force. Brazil’s leftist President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva (loo-EEZ’ ee-NAH’-see-oh LOO’-luh duh SEEL’-vuh) fell short of the votes he needed to win a second term outright and was forced into a runoff, which he won by a landslide. Tiger Woods won the American Express Championship in Chandler’s Cross, England. (It was his eighth victory of the year, making Woods the first player in PGA Tour history to win at least eight times in three seasons.)

Five years ago: More than 700 Occupy Wall Street protesters were arrested after they swarmed the Brooklyn Bridge and shut down a lane of traffic for several hours in a tense confrontation with police. Campaigning began in Tunisia for the first elections born of the revolts that swept the Middle East.

One year ago: A gunman opened fire at Umpqua Community College in Roseburg, Oregon, killing nine people and then himself. A 49-year-old convicted murderer of three people in Virginia and California was executed by Virginia after a series of last-minute appeals failed.

– – –

Thought for Today: “Talent alone won’t make you a success. Neither will being in the right place at the right time, unless you are ready. The most important question is: ‘Are you ready?'” – Johnny Carson (1925-2005).